APES Course Description and Test Topics

Course Description

The AP Environmental Science course is designed to be the equivalent of a one-semester, introductory college course in environmental science. Unlike most other college introductory-level science course, environmental science is offered from a wide variety of departments in college. Depending on the department offering the course, different emphases are placed on various topics. Some courses are rigorous courses that stress scientific principles and analysis, and that often include a laboratory component; other courses emphasize the study of environmental issues from a sociological or political perspective rather than a scientific one. The AP Environmental Science course has been developed to be most like the former; as such it is intended to enable students to undertake, as first-year college students a more advanced study of topics in environmental science or alternatively, to fulfill a basic requirement for a laboratory science and thus free time for taking other courses.

The AP Environmental Science course is to provide students with the scientific principles, concepts and methodologies required to understand the interrelationships of the natural world, to identify and analyze environmental problems both natural and human-made, to evaluate the relative risks associated with these problems, and to examine alternative solutions for resolving and/or preventing them.

Environmental Science is interdisciplinary; it embraces a wide variety of topics from different areas of study. Yet there are several major unifying constructs, or themes, that cut across the many topics included in the study of environmental science. The following themes provide a foundation for the structure of the AP Environmental Science course.

  1. Science is a process
  2. Energy conversions underlie all ecological processes
  3. The Earth itself is one interconnected system
  4. Humans alter natural systems
  5. Environmental problems have a cultural and social context
  6. Human survival depends on developing practices that will achieve sustainable systems

Students who take AP Environmental Science are expected to have had biology and chemistry, both laboratory sciences. Students should also have a good understanding of algebra.

Textbook: Environment, 4/E; Raven and Berg, John Wiley and Sons, ©2004.

Summary Outline of Test Topics

I. Earth Systems and Resources (10-15%)
II. The Living World (10-15%)
III. Population (10-15%)
IV. Land and Water Use (10-15%)
V. Energy Resources and Consumption (10-15%)
VI. Pollution (25-30%)
VII. Global Change (10-15%)

Detailed Outline of Test Topics

I. Earth Systems and Resources (10-15%)

A. Earth Science Concepts
(Geologic time scale; plate tectonics, earthquakes, volcanism; seasons; solar intensity and latitude)
B. The Atmosphere
(Composition; structure; weather and climate; atmospheric circulation and the Coriolis Effect; atmosphere-ocean interactions; ENSO)
C. Global Water Resources and Use
(Freshwater/saltwater; ocean circulation; agricultural, industrial, and domestic water use; surface and groundwater issues; global problems; conservation)
D. Soil and Soil Dynamics
(Rock cycle; formation; composition; physical and chemical properties; main soil types; erosion and other soil problems; soil conservation)

II. The Living World (10-15%)

A. Ecosystem Structure
(Biological populations and communities; ecological niches; interactions among species; keystone species;
species diversity and edge effects; major terrestrial and aquatic biomes)
B. Energy Flow
(Photosynthesis and cellular respiration; food webs and trophic levels; ecological pyramids)
C. Ecosystem Diversity
(Biodiversity; natural selection; evolution; ecosystem succession)
D. Natural Ecosystem Change
(Climate shifts; species movement; ecological succession)
E. Natural Biogeochemical Cycles
(Carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, water, conservation of matter)

III. Population (10-15%)

A. Population Biology Concepts
(Population ecology; carrying capacity; reproductive strategies; survivorship curves)
B. Human Population
1. Human Population Dynamics
(Historical population sizes; distribution; fertility rates; growth rates and doubling times;
demographic transition; age-structure diagrams)
2. Population Size
(Strategies for sustainability; case studies; national policies)
3. Impacts of population growth
(Hunger; disease; economic effects; resource use; habitat destruction)

IV. Land and Water Use (10-15%)

A. Agriculture
1. Feeding a growing population
(Human nutritional requirements; types of agriculture; Green Revolution;
genetic engineering and crop production; deforestation; irrigation; sustainable agriculture)
B. Forestry
(Tree plantations; old growth forests; forest fires; forest management; national forests)
C. Rangelands
(Overgrazing; deforestation; desertification; rangeland management; federal rangelands)
D. Other Land Use
1. Urban land development
(Planned development; suburban sprawl; urbanization)
2. Transportation infrastructure
(Federal highway system; canals and channels; roadless areas; ecosystem impacts)
3. Public and federal lands
(Management; wilderness areas; national parks; wildlife refuges; forests; wetlands)
4. Land conservation options
(Preservation; remediation; mitigation; restoration)
5. Sustainable land-use strategies
E. Mining
(Mineral formation; extraction; global reserves; relevant laws and treaties)
F. Fishing
(Fishing techniques; overfishing; aquaculture; relevant laws and treaties)
G. Global Economics
(Globalization; World Bank; Tragedy of the Commons; relevant laws and treaties)

V. Energy Resources and Consumption (10-15%)

A. Energy Concepts
(Energy forms; power; units; conversions; Laws of Thermodynamics)
B. Energy Consumption
1. History
(Industrial Revolution; exponential growth; energy crisis)
2. Present global energy use
3. Future energy needs
C. Fossil Fuel Resources and Use
(Formation of coal, oil and natural gas; extraction/purification methods;
world reserves and global demand; synfuels; environmental advantages/disadvantages of sources)
D. Nuclear Energy
(Nuclear fission process; nuclear fuel; electricity production; nuclear reactor types; environmental
advantages/disadvantages; safety issues; radiation and human health; radioactive wastes; nuclear fusion)
E. Hydroelectric Power
(Dams; flood control; salmon; silting; other impacts)
F. Energy Conservation
(Energy efficiency; CAFE standards; hybrid electric vehicles; mass transit)
G. Renewable Energy
(Solar energy; solar electricity; hydrogen fuel cells; biomass; wind energy; small-scale hydroelectric; ocean waves and tidal energy; geothermal; environmental advantages/disadvantages)

VI. Pollution (25-30%)

A. Pollution Types
1. Air Pollution
(Sources - primary and secondary; major air pollutants; measurement units; smog;
acid deposition - causes and effects; heat islands and temperature inversions;
indoor air pollution; remediation and reduction strategies; Clean Air Act and other relevant laws)
2. Noise Pollution
(Sources; effects; control measures)
3. Water pollution
(Types; sources; causes and effects; cultural eutrophication; groundwater pollution; maintaining
water quality; water purification; sewage treatment/septic systems; Clean Water Act and other relevant laws)
4. Solid Waste
(Types; disposal; reduction)
B. Impacts on the Environnment and Human Health
1. Hazards to human health
(Environmental risk analysis; acute and chronic effects; dose-response relationships;
air pollutants; smoking and other risks)
2. Hazardous chemicals in the environment
(Types of hazardous waste; treatment/disposal of hazardous waste; cleanup of contaminated sites;
biomagnification; relevant laws)
C. Economic Impacts
( Cost-benefit analysis; externalities; marginal costs; sustainability)

VII. Global Change (10-15%)

A. Stratosperic Ozone
(Formation of stratospheric ozone; ultraviolet radiation; causes of ozone depletion;
effects of ozone depletion; strategies for reducing ozone depletion; relevant laws and treaties)
B. Global Warming
(Greenhouse gases and the greenhouse effect; impacts and consequences of global warming;
reducing climate change; relevant laws and treaties)
C. Loss of Biodiversity
1. Habitat loss; overuse; pollution; introduced species; endangered and extinct species
2. Maintenance through conservation
3. Relevant laws and treaties