Chemistry Study Guide


Ch. 1 & 2: Introduction to Chemistry and Measurements


Define chemistry
Write the symbol and name of common elements
Describe the major areas of study in chemistry (organic, inorganic, analytical, physical, and biochemistry)
Describe the difference between mass and weight
Describe the difference between chemical and physical change
Describe the difference between accuracy and precision
Describe the scientific method and how its used
List the SI base units for length, mass, volume, time, and temperature
List and convert using the SI prefixes: kilo-, centi-, and milli-
Convert temperatures from degrees Celsius to Kelvin (add 273) or from Kelvin to degrees Celsius (subtract 273)
Convert mass, length, and volume, and temperature between the SI and English systems (2.54 cm = 1 inch, 454 g = 1 pound, .946 L = 1 quart)
Calculate the density of a solid (mass / volume)
Express numbers in scientific notation
Express scientific notation in decimal form
Compute numbers in scientific notation using a calculator
Be familiar with the following terms: theory, law
Decide if a digit in a number is "significant"
Round answers to arithmetic problems to reflect the precision of the number
Describe the three states of matter and give an example of each
Be familiar with the following terms: atom, element, molecule, compound, mixture, homogeneous, heterogeneous. physical property, chemical property
Describe the difference between chemical and physical change

Ch. 4: Elements, Atoms, and Ions


Write the symbols and names of common elements
Memorize common polyatomic ions.
Be familiar with Dalton’s atomic theory, and the problems with it today.
Be able to write a chemical formula
Count protons, neutrons, and electrons in an isotope of an atom or ion; isotopes
Calculate the average atomic mass of the elements
Mole, Molar Mass (Molecular Weight), gram to mole conversions
conversions: moles to number of particles (ions, atoms, molecules)
Know properties of protons, neutrons, and electrons including: symbol, mass number, location, and relative charge.
Describe J. J. Thomson's experiment; describe Millikan's experiment
Describe the Rutherford experiment, and how it proved the existence of the nucleus.
Write isotopes in hyphen notation and nuclear symbol notation.
Define: atomic number, atomic mass, mass number, group/family, period/series

Ch. 5: Modern Atomic Theory / Electron Configuration / Quantum Theory


Find wavelength, amplitude, and frequency of a sine wave.
Discuss the electromagnetic spectrum.
Know the order of visible light by increasing energy (ROY G BIV)
Photoelectric effect - importance of
Define: quantum, photon, ground state, excited state, Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principle,
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, Hund’s rule, octet rule, valence
Bohr model of the atom
How absorption and emission of energy (photon) relate to structure of the atom
Discuss particle-wave nature of light. Wave-Particle Duality of Nature
Know the definitions of all four quantum numbers (n,l,m,s).
Know the order of filling of the orbitals - using the periodic table.
Know the maximum number of electrons in each type of orbital.
Know orbital shapes for s, p, d
Find the maximum number of electrons in an energy level.(2n2)
Find electron configurations, both longhand and shorthand, for elements and ions
Isoelectronic
Predict the last electron in a configuration using the periodic table
Draw orbital diagrams for elements and ions
Observe visible light emissions of excited electrons (laboratory) - Spectra Lab
Observe various wavelengths of light and spectral lines (laboratory)

Ch. 6: Periodic Table


History: Döbereiner, Newlands, Moseley, Mendeleev
Find metals, transition metals, metalloids, and nonmetals using the periodic table
Know names of Group 1, 2, 16, 17, and 18; actinides and lanthanides, and their charges
Predict the charge of an ion when formed from an atom.
Know which elements are diatomic.
Periodic Law: original and current versions
s-Block, p-Block, d-Block and f-Block
Groups/Families, Periods, names of the various groups
Electronic structure of the various Groups
Know who discovered the original periodic table, and how
Know the reasons for the periodic trends: atomic radius, ionic radius, 1st ionization energy, and electronegativity

Ch. 8 & 9: Chemical Bonding


Define: chemical bond, ionic, covalent, metallic, diatomic, polar, nonpolar, VSEPR, dipole-dipole forces,
Hydrogen “bonding”, and London dispersion forces
Use bonding angles and electronegativity to determine the type of bond formed between two elements
Draw Lewis structures for atoms and covalent molecules, including double and triple bonds.
Resonance
General characteristics of the different types of compounds: ionic, covalent, metallic
Draw Lewis structures for polyatomic ions
The Octet Rule as it applies to molecules/compounds.
Write Lewis electron dot structures.
Hybridization
Identify bonds and molecules as polar or nonpolar
Distinguish between intermolecular and intramolecular attractions
Understand the expansion of ice due to hydrogen bonding.

Ch. 8 & 9: Chemical Nomenclature


Memorize common polyatomic ions.
Complete ionic formulas with given charges
Write IUPAC names and formulas (without use of ion lists) for: binary salts, ternary salts, binary acids, ternary acids, and 2 nonmetals.
Find oxidation numbers (Roman numerals) for elements.
Write name of chemicals using both Roman Numeral (Stock) and Greek prefix systems
Know system for naming binary and ternary acids
Know oxidation number rules and how to apply them.
Calculation of Formula Mass, Molar Mass (Molecular Weight) and use of Molar Mass as a conversion factor
(converting grams to moles, and vice versa)
Calculate percent composition
Definition and calculation of empirical formulas and molecular formulas

Ch. 10: Chemical Reactions


Know signs of a chemical reaction
Know symbols used in equations. (solid, liquid, gas, aqueous, yields, etc.)
Know importance and meaning of the coefficients used in a chemical equation
Define: reactants, products
Identify type of reaction (synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, double replacement, combustion)
Balance equations
Predict products for equations
Determine the empirical formula of a hydrate (laboratory)
Activity Series - how and when to use it to predict reactions
Chemical Composition
Define: average atomic mass, mole
Find the average atomic mass of an element (butane laboratory)
Convert grams to moles, moles to grams, #atoms to moles, moles to #atoms, #atoms to grams, grams to #atoms for an element; also convert to liters (22.4 L = 1 mole of a gas).
Know the value and definition of Avogadro’s number.
Calculate the average atomic mass of an element when given natural abundance of each isotope
Change moles to grams, grams to moles for compounds.
Calculate percent composition of a compound
Find the percent yield (laboratory)

Ch. 12: Stoichiometry


Explain mole ratio
Perform gram to mole to mole to gram calculations
Perform mole to mole calculations, and variations of these steps.
Calculate theoretical yields when given the limiting reactant (Convert: moles A to moles B, grams A to moles B, moles A to grams B, grams A to grams B)
Explain limiting reactant and excess reactant.
Calculate theoretical yields by finding the limiting reactant
Given actual yield, calculate percent yield.
Given percent yield, calculate actual yield.
Calculate theoretical yield, limiting reactant, excess, and percent yield for a double replacement reaction

Ch. 14: Gas Laws


Explain the kinetic theory of matter as it applies to gases.
Identify the properties of an ideal gas vs. a real gas;
Know under what conditions a real gas behaves like an ideal gas
Know how to measure gas pressure using closed and open manometers
What is a barometer?
What is STP? What are the numerical values for these variables?
Elastic collisions
Know the difference between diffusion and effusion
Know units of pressure in atm, torr, mm Hg, and in. Hg
Calculate using Boyle's Law, Charles' Law, Gay-Lussac's Law, Combined Gas Law, and Ideal Gas Law
(using 0.0821 for R), Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
Collection of a gas by water displacement or over water.
Change volume of gases to STP.
Calculate partial pressure of a gas using Dalton's Law.

Ch. 14: Gas Stoichiometry


Avogadro's Law - what does it say?
Standard Molar Volume of a gas, and its use in stoichiometric problems
Calculate stoichiometric problems using density of a gas at STP.
Ideal Gas Law, and its various forms (density, M)
Calculate relative speed using Graham's Law.

Ch. 13: Liquids and Solids


Properties of a liquid (incl. surface tension, capillary action, evaporation, boiling, freezing)
Properties of a solid (including melting, )
Crystal structure (unit cell, ionic - covalent - metallic solids - amorphous)
Changes of state (equilibrium: liquid - vapor phase)
Le Châtelier's Principle
Effect of temperature and concentration on equilibrium
Equilibrium Vapor Pressure;
Volatile and nonvolatile liquids
Boiling and the Molar Heat of Vaporization
Freezing and Melting: and the Molar Heat of Fusion
Sublimation and Deposition
Phase Diagrams (know the various regions: solid, liquid, gas, Triple Point, Critical Point, Normal b.p.,
Normal m.p., Critical Temperature, Critical Pressure)

Ch. 15: Solutions


Define: soluble, solute, solvent, solution, suspension, colloid, electrolyte, nonelectrolyte,
types of solutions (combination of phases), saturated, unsaturated, supersaturated)
Tyndall effect
List factors that affect the rate of dissolution
List factors that affect solubility
Define: hydration, solvation, miscible, immiscible, Henry's Law
Calculate Molarity.
Calculate molality.
Calculate mole fraction
Calculate % by mass

Ch. 13: Colligative Properties


Define: dissociation, precipitation reaction, net ionic equation, spectator ions, ionization, hydronium ion
Defferentiate: strong and weak electrolytes
Define colligative properties: identify the 4 properties discussed in class
Calculate changes in freezing point and boiling point in molecular solutes
Calculate changes in freezing point and boiling point in ionic solutes
Semipermeable membrane

Ch. 19: Acids and Bases


Know properties of acids and bases
Know definitions of acids and bases according to Arrhenius, Brønsted-Lowry.
Define monoprotic, polyprotic, diprotic, triprotic: identify polyprotic acids and bases.
Conjugate acids and bases
Define: Amphoteric
HO- on a molecule: acid or base? Know how to predict.
Review naming of acids, both binary and ternary.
Strong and weak acids
Strong and weak bases
Neutralization reaction: acid + base ------> salt + water.
Titrations: calculate concentration of unknown acid or base (MaVa = MbVb).

Ch. 19: Acids and Bases


Autoionization of water, Kw,
pH scale
Calculate pH, pOH, H+ concentration, and OH- concentration given any one.

Calculate the solute and solvent necessary for a dilution
Calculate the volume necessary to neutralize an acid/base
Acid-base indicators
Titration (equivalence point, end point); calculate concentration of unknown, standard solution

Ch. 17: Reaction Energy and Reaction Kinetics, Thermochemistry


Define: calorimeter, temperature
Formula for heat: q = m c (Tf-Ti)
Enthalpy (H)
Exothermic and Endothermic: know the shape of the potential energy curves
Entropy (S)
Free Energy (G) and the equation for free energy change to predict reaction spontaneity
Reaction mechanisms - Collision theory, activation energy, activated complex
Factors that influence the rate of a reaction (5)
Heterogeneous and homogeneous
Rate laws and the rate-determining step

Ch. 18: Chemical Equilibrium for Acids, Bases and Salts


Dynamic equilibrium, Equilibrium expression, equilibrium constant (K), Le Châtelier's Principle (again)
Effect of pressure, concentration and temperature on the position of equilibrium
Know the types of reactions that go to completion
Common-ion effect
Ionization constants for weak acids, weak bases, water, slightly-soluble salts
Calculate solubility of a sl. sol. salt from its Ksp

Ch. 20: Oxidation-Reduction: Electrochemistry


Review rules for oxidation numbers
Definition of oxidation, reduction, oxidation-reduction reaction, oxidizing agents, reducing agents, autooxidation)
Be able to balance a redox reaction
Define: electrochemical cell, anode, cathode, half-cell, salt bridge, Voltaic cells, electrolytic cells
Electroplating
Use Standard Reduction Potential Table to predict voltage of a cell, including which half cell is oxidation
and which is reduction

Ch. 25: Nuclear Chemistry


Define: Band of Stability, radioactive decay, radioactive nuclide, nuclide,
Know the types of radioactive decay: alpha, beta, gamma, positron, electron capture
Half-Life
Decay Series
Parent and daughter nuclides
Radioactive dating; use of radioactivity in medicine (cancer treatment)
Nuclear fission - chain reaction, parts of a nuclear reactor
Nuclear fusion - sun

Ch. 22: Carbon and Hydrocarbons


Structure of carbon when bonded
Allotropes of carbon: diamond, graphite, fullerenes
Structural formulas, isomers (structural or geometric)
Saturated hydrocarbons - alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkane nomenclature
Unsaturated hydrocarbons - alkenes, alkynes, aromatics

Ch. 23: Other Organic Compounds


Know the functional group characteristic of: Alcohols, alkyl halides, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, amines
Know the types of organic reactions: substitution, addition, condensation, elimination
Polymers: define monomer, polymer, addition polymers, condensation polymers,
Vulcanization, thermosetting, thermoplastic

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Chemistry I Final Exam

Chemistry I final exam review sheet

Chemical Reactions

Identify the type of reaction: Addition, Decomposition, Single Replacement, Double Replacement, or Combustion
Predict the right side of an equation when given the left side
Balance Equations
Chemical Composition and Stoichiometry
Avogadro's Number
Moles
Molecular Weight
Convert moles to grams
Convert grams to moles
Convert atoms/molecules to moles
Convert moles to atoms/molecules
Find the percent composition of a compound
Find a mole ratio
Convert moles/grams of a substance to moles/grams of a different substance (stoichiometry)
Find the limiting reactant
Calculate percent yield and percent error
Gas Laws
Know units of pressure: mm Hg, in Hg, atm, torr
Know units of volume: mL, L
Convert Celsius to Kelvin
Solve combined gas law problems
Solve ideal gas law problems
Solve Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures problems
Use molar volume of a gas (22.4 L = 1 mole at STP) to do stoichiometry
Convert to and from STP
Solutions
Define: soluble, solute, solvent, solution, electrolyte, nonelectrolyte, saturated, unsaturated, supersaturated
Calculate Molarity.
Calculate molality.
Calculate % by mass
Calculate changes in freezing point and boiling point
Acids and Bases
Know properties of acids and bases
Know definitions of acids and bases according to Arrhenius, Brønsted-Lowry, and Lewis.
Review naming of acids, both binary and ternary.
Calculate pH, pOH, H+ concentration, and OH- concentration given any one.
Calculate the solute and solvent necessary for a dilution
Calculate the volume necessary to neutralize an acid/base
Chemistry I First Semester Exam
organic chemistry
analytical chemistry
physical chemistry
inorganic chemistry
biochemistry
hypothesis
theory
law
scientific method
mass
weight
volume
kinetic energy
potential energy
physical change
chemical change
group
period
Kelvin
celsius
precision
accuracy
proton
neutron
electron
isotope
wavelength
photons
nonmetals
metalloids
noble gases
alkali metals (group IA)
alkaline earth metals (group IIA)
halogens (group VIIA)
ionization energy
atomic radius
electronegativity
ion
atom
molecule
compound
diatomic elements
alpha particles
beta particles
gamma ray
Half-life
fission
fusion
covalent bond
ionic bond
Hybridization and VSEPR
octet rule

Problems:


You should be able to work basic problems dealing with:

physical or chemical change
element names/symbols
metric prefixes (centi-, milli-, kilo-)
Celsius to Kelvin conversion OR Kelvin to Celsius
significant digits
scientific notation
density
unit conversions (inches to cm, seconds to hours, etc-)
English to metric conversions for length, volume, mass (2.54cm = 1 inch, 0.946 L = 1 quart, 454 g = 1 pound)
balance nuclear reaction equations
electron configurations
Lewis electron dot structures
NOMENCLATURE {naming compounds, writing formulas}